Tax deducted at source (TDS) and Tax collection at source (TCS) aim at collection of revenue at the very source of income. It is essentially an indirect method of collecting tax which combines the concepts of "pay as you earn" and "collect as it is being earned." Its significance to the government lies in the fact that it prepones the collection of tax, ensures a regular source of revenue, provides for a greater reach and wider base for tax. At the same time, to the tax payer, it distributes the incidence of tax and provides for a simple and convenient mode of payment.
The concept of TDS requires that the person on whom responsibility has been cast, is to deduct tax at the appropriate rates, from payments of specific nature which are being made to a specified recipient. The deducted sum is required to be deposited to the credit of the Central Government. The recipient from whom income tax has been deducted at source, gets the credit of the amount deducted
The statutory provision regarding deduction of tax at source is dealt in Chapter XVII of the Income-tax Act, 1961 which gives the details of the relevant provision of TDS, the rates and also the exemptions where no tax is to be deducted.
The following items of payment are subject to tax deduction at source:-
Visit TDS Rate page for TDS rates and TDS Calculator.
Tax deducted or collected at source shall be deposited to the credit of the Central Government by following modes:
Where taxes have been deducted at source from any payment of income receivable by an assessee, the amount of tax deducted at source would be included in the income of the assessee while computing the income of the assessee and would be deemed to be the income received (Section 198). Further, credit will be given to the assessee while calculating the net tax payable by him and the tax deducted at source will be treated as a payment of tax on his behalf (i.e. to the Central Government by the payer who has deducted the tax at source) (S.199).
A certificate is prescribed u/s 203, which is to be issued by person deducting tax at source. Every person deducting tax is duty bound to furnish this certificate to the person from whose income/ payment the tax has been deducted. The certificate should specify the amount of tax deducted and rate at which it is deducted. (Form No. 16A, under Rule 31). On production of this certificate, credit u/s 199, for tax paid, will be given to the person, from whose income the tax has been deducted, in his income-tax assessment for the assessment year in which the income (or payment) is assessable.
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In case of any doubt / clarification, please visit the official website of Income Tax Department.
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